Volume 1 Issue 1
Sulaiman M.H1*, Imam J1, Suleiman M.M2, Bello A3, Kudi C.A4
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), also known as von Recklinghausen disease is caused by disorder of a single gene on chromosome 17 that usually restrains cell division. The NF1 gene is mapped to chromosome 17(17p21). Its protein product neurofibromin, negatively regulate oncogenic Ras, and thus regulate cell proliferation. Neurofibromas are heterogeneous and complex benign tumours, consisting of Schwann cells (NF-/-) and fibroblasts (NF1+/+, NF+/-) and other cell types including perineurial cells, mast cells, pericytes and endothelial cells. Human basic fibroblasts growth factor (b-FGF) is expressed by Schwann cells, macrophages and fibroblasts at the distal nerve stump, thereby preparing the local environment for axonal regeneration.
Nada A.S. Alwan1*
Breast cancer has currently become a major public health problem in Iraq being the most commonly diagnosed malignancy among the population and the leading cause of death from malignant neoplasm among women [1, 2]. The latest Iraqi Cancer Registry  estimated that 4,115 cases of breast cancer were reported in 2013 accounting for 19.5% of all newly diagnosed malignancies and 34% of the registered female cancers.
Bello A1*, Shehu S. A1, Suleiman M. H2, Nzalak J. O2, Umaru M. A3
The study aimed at investigating the histomorphometric characteristics of the trachea of donkey (Equus asinus) using standard morphometrical techniques. In this study three donkeys were used (two male and one female). The age of the donkeys was estimated using the knowledge of teeth eruption and wearing of milk and permanent teeth. The shape, location, size and relation of the trachea were observed. The length, width, diameter, volume and number of tracheal rings were also observed in this study.
Sharadkumar Pralhad Sawant1*, Dr. Shaheen Rizvi1
PKD is an inherited condition defined by the pathological development of fluid-filled cysts throughout the kidneys leading to organ enlargement and chronic kidney disease. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the fourth commonest cause of kidney failure worldwide. The main feature of ADPKD is the presence of cystic tubules, which are unable to perform their function properly, resulting in fluid retention, high blood pressure and kidney failure. Eventually, there is slow progression to End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD).
Letter to editor
Babak Abdolkarimi1*, Pouria salajeghe2
Homeopathy is a one of alternative medicine based on this hypothesis similia similibus curentur or like cures like .This means a material that causes the symptoms of a disorder in healthy person would cure resemble symptoms in sick people or the medicine given is like the disease that the people is expressing, in his totality, not similar a specific disease class or medical diagnosis. (1) It is the administration of medicine that embrace a holistic, natural approach to the treatment of the sick. Now there are over 2000 materials as homeopathic medicine. The majority of homoeopathic remedies are made from natural substances such as plants or mineral material such as Schirrinum, Thuja, Hydrastis, Plumbum iod, Arsenicum album, Phosphorus, minerals, or animal.(2)
Mari Amir1*, Ovadia Baruch1, Gal Oren1, Dapasmes Roman1, Abu Backer Fadi1, Feldman Dani1, Kopelman Yael1
colorectal cancer screening by colonoscopy for average risk populations, beginning at the age of 50 has been proven to decrease mortality. Routine performance of a yearly fecal occult blood test (FOBT) in populations undergoing regular colonoscopic screening is not advised. However, a number of physicians continue to recommend the performance of yearly FOBTs along with colonoscopy surveillance.